The emerging wireless communications standards at higher frequencies, especially toward 60 and 80 GHz, are challenged by the availability of cost-effective high performance oscillators. Since the bandwidth of a wireless communications system is heavily dependent on the phase noise of the local oscillator, spectral efficiency at these frequencies is limited to a fraction of that achieved in cellular, WiFi, and WiMax applications using available local oscillators (LO). LO performance also limits the precision of radar systems, such as mm-wave phased array radars.